NEPLAN | Preview – Impact of Converter-Interfaced Generation to the Frequency Response of the European Power

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Abstract—The increase of converter-interfaced generation (CIG) typically related to renewable energy sources is progressively causing a significant change of power systems operation. The curtailment of synchronous generation with the consequent reduction of the overall kinetic energy is one of the related issues, currently under investigation in academia and industry. The work considers the problem of overall inertia reduction from a large-scale point of view, analyzing the impact of different CIG integration levels to the frequency response of the power system of Continental Europe. The kinetic energy is evaluated for each country of the synchronous area, and the system is modified substituting conventional synchronous generation with converter-interfaced generation. The models of power converters and corresponding controls follow typical representation for stability studies: they are modeled as controlled current sources with active and reactive power control loops, implemented as user-written equations within the overall mathematical model of Continental Europe power system. Comprehensive time-domain simulations are performed for each scenario, assuming the system subjected to a power plant outage: the obtained frequencies for Western, Central and Eastern Europe are reported, and typical frequency metrics are used to evaluate the response of the system across the different scenarios. Results show how the penetration of CIG affects the frequency response of the system, in terms of instantaneous frequency deviation and maximum frequency rate. A significant change in the inter-area oscillations is also observed, with a progressive increase of the oscillation frequency of the East-West mode, as confirmed by the modal analysis of the system.